Physical water conditioning is of interest to plumbers, homeowners, multifamily/hospitality developers, management companies and others with hard water challenges and questions regarding where water softening chlorides come from. Additionally, it offers information for those who are concerned with water conservation and alternatives to conventional water softeners. Some of this technology is far less expensive to install, it takes up less space and requires no maintenance, with a life considerably exceeding that of conventional softeners. There is still a considerable amount of uncertainty about how well these devices work, how reliable and how effective they really are. This presentation is designed to answer many of these questions, plus offer guidance on how to get the most out of the various options.